Saturday, December 20, 2014

PGDHHM - 2nd Set of Assignments

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2nd Set of Assignments (Modules 6 to 11)
Module 6
Hospital Planning & Facilities Management

Total: 100 Marks

Answer the following questions. Each question carries 20 marks.

1. Describe in detail various steps involved in hospital design.

2. Describe Surgical suite of 200 bedded hospital. What preventive measures will be carried out to reduce risk of infection?

3. Describe the Planning and designing of ICU for 300 bedded hospital

4. Describe the Planning & Management of Inventory in 300 bedded hospital.

5. Write short notes on :

a) Objectives of disaster management plan
b) Green hospital

Module 7
Organizational Behaviour

Total: 50 Marks

Answer the following questions. Each question carries 10 marks.

1. What is motivation? Describe different motivational techniques? For motivating the office staff in a healthcare institution which theory of motivation will you apply and why?

2. Describe path goal and situational leadership theory in detail.

3. Describe the elements of HRD systems.

4. Describe the quality and objective of patient care.

5. Write short notes on :

a) The managerial grid
b) Job enrichment and its benefits for hospital

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Module 8

Hospital Supportive Services

Total: 100 Marks
Answer the following questions. Each question carries 20 marks.

1. Define Nursing administration. Discuss the major responsibilities associated with administration of nursing services.

2. How will you plan & organize the radiology services in a hospital?

3. Describe the functions of CSSD? How will you plan and organize CSSD department in 200 bedded hospital?

4. What are public relations? Discuss its importance in hospital and methods to promote good public relations.

5. Write short notes on :
a) Importance and main components of medical records
b) Blood bank

Module 9

Quality Management in Healthcare

Total: 50 Marks
Answer the following questions: Each question carries 10 marks

1. What are the steps in improving patient quality?

2. Explain Quality Management Cycle

3. What is Accreditation? What are its benefits? How a successful Accreditation system helps hospital? Explain in detail.

4. Write short notes on :
a) EFQM Excellence model
b) Types of medical audit

5. Multiple Choice Questions

i) Donabedian's framework for quality
a. Is used worldwide
b. Outcome relates to physical health
c. Process measurements are not possible
d. Takes non-clinical aspects of health care into account

ii) Investing in quality
a. Costs more than the returns
b. Clarifies the services available to clients
c. Will eliminate negligence claims
d. Will lead to an enormous amount of wastage

iii) Patient quality
a. Is synonymous with patient satisfaction
b. Reducing complaints is sufficient to gain competitive advantage
c. Should be measured in comparison to a standard reference
d. Depends on providing the latest treatment

iv) The following statement is true
a. Segmentation helps improve the quality of a service
b. Need should be equal to response in order to make a profit
c. Response should be equal to need in order to make a loss
d. Segmentation is according to patient need and not purchaser need

v) Improvement in patient quality
a. Requires a step-by-step approach
b. Can be sorted out easily by apologising to patients
c. Can be achieved by providing good treatment
d. Requires identification of quality features by managers

vi) In traditional management
a. Junior staff are not involved
b. Performance standards are set which motivate staff
c. Staff are empowered to make decisions
d. There is a focus on processes

vii) Quality programmes
a. Must be devised and implemented by senior managers
b. Fail due to commitment and understanding by top management
c. Need leadership by senior managers
d. Must motivate staff through extrinsic incentives i.e. bonuses,

viii) Professionals
a. Are the best persons to tackle quality in the health service
b. Do not need checks in view of their rigorous training
c. Should take part in regular clinical audits
d. Change practice regularly in the light of new evidence7

ix) Differentiation
a. Needs to take the customers' views into account
b. Is the provision of a bigger and more expensive product or service
c. By lowering the price is the best method
d. Is not useful when there is fierce competition

x) Clinical audit
a. Internal retrospective audit is not commonly used
b. Is compulsory in all hospitals
c. Does not require additional time for clinicians
d. Results in savings for the organization

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Module 10

Stake Holders In Health Care Sector

Total : 100 Marks

Answer the following questions. Each question carries 20 marks.

1. Describe evolution of NGO'S & types of NGO'S in India

2. Describe in detail Indian Pharmaceutical Industry?

3. Describe Health Insurance Contracts.

4. Describe documentation in Clinical Research

5. Write short notes on

a) Information Technology in healthcare
b) Role of government in medical equipment manufacturing industry

Module 11

Marketing Health Care

Total: 100 Marks
Answer the following questions. Each question carries 20 marks.

1. You plan to setup a large hospital of 200 beds in a large city like Pune, Bhopal etc. How would you do a market research for the same? Explain also how would you do SWOT analysis?

2. Explain & classify services.

3. Explain in brief the factors affecting pricing.

4. Describe Market Segmentation procedure.

5. Write short notes on :

a) Advantages of positioning
b) Stages of buying behaviour process

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Public Health

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Public Health
Total: 100 Marks

Answer the following questions: Each question carries 20 marks
Q. 1. Describe the Food safety issues including laws, investigation & prevention.
Answer:Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness. This includes a number of routines that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. The tracks within this line of thought are safety between industry and the market and then between the market and the consumer. In considering industry to market practices, food safety considerations include the origins of food including the practices relating to food labeling, food hygiene, food additives and pesticide residues, as well as policies on biotechnology and food and guidelines for the management of governmental import and export inspection and certification systems for foods. In considering market to consumer

Q. 2. Explain Demographic profile of India along with health problems in India
Answer: The demographics of India are inclusive of the second most populous country in the world, with over 1.21 billion people (2011 census), more than a sixth of the world's population. Already containing 17.5% of the world's population, India is projected to be the world's most populous country by 2025, surpassing China, its population reaching 1.6 billion by 2050. Its population growth rate is 1.41%, ranking 102nd in the world in 2010. The Indian population had reached the billion mark by 2000. India has more than 50% of its population below the age of 25

Q. 3. Describe in detail Technologies for treatment of Bio medical waste
Answer:Medical care is vital for our life and health, but the waste generated from medical activities represents a real problem of living nature and human world. Improper management of waste generated in health care facilities causes a direct health impact on the community, the health care workers and on the environment Every day, relatively large amount of potentially infectious and hazardous waste are generated in the health care hospitals and facilities around the world. Indiscriminate disposal of BMW or hospital waste and exposure to such waste

Q. 4. Write short note on :
Q. a) Purification of water
Answer:Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from contaminated water. The goal of this process is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is disinfected for human consumption (drinking water) but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, including meeting the requirements of medical, pharmacological,

Q. b) Radiation effects
Answer:Radiation specialists use the unit “rem” (or sievert) to describe the amount of radiation dose someone received. We are going to use that unit throughout the sections. Without getting into technical specifics about that unit, it is enough to know that it indicates a measure of how much radiation energy is absorbed in our body. And, as we will see in other sections, the total energy that is absorbed and its effectiveness in causing change is the basis for

Q. 5. A) Multiple Choice Questions
Q. i) Epidemic curve is distribution of cases according to
a) Time
b) Place
c) Person
d) Fatal Cases

Q. ii) Use of Gambusia fish to control malaria is an example of
a) Biological control
b) Genetic Control
c) Chemical Control
d) None of the above

Q. iii) Diethyl toluamide is used to
a) Kill mosquitoes
b) As a repellant against fleas
c) As a repellant against mosquitoes
d) Both b & c

Q. iv) Cohort Study proceeds from
a) Cause to effect
b) Effect to cause
c) Treatment to cure
d) None of the above

Q. v) Efficiency of Pasteurization is tested by
a) Horrock's test
b) OT test
c) Phosphatase test
d) Widal test

Q. vi) Salmonella food poisoning commonly occurs through
a) Farm animals and poultry
b) Tinned food
c) Vegetables
d) None of the above.

Q. vii) Demographic cycle consists of
a) Two stages
b) Three stages
c) Four stages
d) Five stages

Q. viii) The following is an IUD
a) Diaphragm
b) Suppositories
c) Copper –T
d) Gossypol

Q. ix) The current life expectancy (in years) at birth in India is:
a) 63
b) 73
c) 68
d) 57

Q. x) Oral pills are
a) Mala-N
b) Mala-D
c) Both
d) None of the above
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Materials Management

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Materials Management
Total: 100 Marks

Answer the following questions: Each question carries 20 marks

Q. 1. Enumerate the various factors affecting the utilization of equipment inHealthcare Institutions.
Answer: In the present healthcare scenario, increasing operational efficiency and reducing costs, whilst improving service provided to the patient, are a constant challenge. Advances in engineering and information technology, particularly during the last few decades, have revolutionized medical care. The availability and utilization of various healthcare equipment, at all levels, in the health system for effective and efficient service delivery was amply emphasized in the Alma-Ata declaration at the International Conference on Primary Healthcare in

Q. 2. Describe the objectives of Inventory control
Answer: An inventory-control system is the mechanism within a company that is used for efficient management of the movement and storage of goods and the related flow of information. Product resellers have access to technology-driven software programs that help optimize inventory control, which is critical in achieving business success. Getting product to customers on time and as inexpensively as possible are the main goals of an inventory-control system.
Avoid Stock-Outs: Making sure that your customers

Q. 3. Discuss the advantages of preventive maintenance
Answer: Preventative maintenance is maintenance that is regularly performed on a piece of equipment to lessen the likelihood of it failing. Preventative maintenance is performed while the equipment is still working, so that it does not break down unexpectedly.  Preventative maintenance is planned so that any required resources are available.  The maintenance is scheduled based on a time or usage trigger. A typical example of an asset with a time based preventative maintenance schedule is an air-conditioner which is serviced every year, before summer. A

Q. 4. Write short notes on.
Q. a) ABC analysis
Answer: It is an analysis of a range of items that have different levels of significance and should be handled or controlled differently. It is a form of Pareto analysis in which the items (such as activities, customers, documents, inventory items, sales territories) are grouped into three categories (A, B, and C) in order of their estimated importance. 'A' items

Q. b) Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)
Answer: An inventory-related equation that determines the optimum order quantity that a company should hold in its inventory given a set cost of production, demand rate and other variables. This is done to minimize variable inventory costs. The full equation is as follows:

where :
5. A) Multiple Choice Questions
Q. i) The functions of Hospital Formulary Committee are following except:
a) Responsible for the preparation of the formulary for the hospital.
b) To exercise over all control on the consumption of drugs and tomaintain economy.
c) It considers the deletion of certain drugs which are not frequentlyused.
d) Make selection of drugs and injections which are to be used in thehospital.

Q. ii) Pre requisite for modern materials management in hospitals are:
a) Meticulous planning
b) Accurate demand estimation
c) Appropriate staffing
d) All of the above

Q. iii) Cost incurred in placing an order is known as
a) Inventory carrying cost
b) Shortage cost
c) Inventory ordering cost
d) Storage cost.

Q. iv) Space requirement for storage of drugs in a major hospital with a bedstrength of 700 and above is
a) 4 - 5 sq. ft. area per bed
b) 7 - 8 sq. ft. area per bed
c) 10 - 15 sq. ft. area per bed
d) 20 - 25 sq. ft. area per bed

Q. v) “VED analysis” is the analysis of items based on
a) Criticality of the items in relation to functioning of the hospital
b) Quantity and rate of consumption of items
c) Cost criteria
d) Availability of costly items

Q. vi) Vitamin preparations should ideally be stored at
a) Cold temperature 2C to 10C
b) Cold temperature 15C to 25
c) Room temperature
d) - 4C

Q. vii) Advantage of centralized purchasing are following except
a) Vendors offer better prices and better service and quantitydiscounts are possible.
b) Duplication of effort and haphazard purchasing practice areminimized.
c) Responsibility of the purchasing function is with single departmenthead, there by facilitating effective management control.
d) Various members of the hospital have the authority to purchaseand purchaser usually knows the needs of his department andsecures it.

Q. B) Write 'True or False' in front of respective sentence
i) Imported medical equipment is more reliable and easy to maintainthan an indigenous one.

ii) Purchasing encompasses the process of procurement.

Q. C) Fills in the blanks
i) The Equipment Audit Committee should meet for a minimum of
………………….… in six months.
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Healthcare Systems

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Healthcare Systems
Total: 100 Marks

Answer the following questions: Each question carries 20 marks

Q. 1. Write in detail about National Rural Health Mission India.
Answer: The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) is an initiative undertaken by the government of India to address the health needs of underserved rural areas. Founded in April 2005 by Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, the NRHM was initially tasked with addressing the health needs of 18 states that had been identified as having weak public health indicators.
Under the NRHM, the Empowered Action Group (EAG) States as well as North Eastern States, Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh have been

Q. 2. Write about National Health Programs for non communicable diseases.
Answer: National Health Programmes for Non Communicable Diseases are as given below:
1. National ProgrammeFor Control Of Blindness:Vision loss from cataract is one of the chief reasons of blindness in India. One and a half million new cases of cataract blindness occur every year, and affect individuals, families, and communities. The greater part of people with cataract blindness live in rural areas where their blindness is related to poverty, lack of medical insurance, and poor access to eye care and surgical services. The cure for cataract blindness is a safe and inexpensive surgery. While the solution is simple, it has also been beyond the reach of most of the people.In view of this India launched the National Program for Control of

Q. 3. Write about agencies involved in International Health.
Answer:Almost the entire cost of health care in the developing world is borne by the developing countries themselves. According to two separate estimates, aid from international health organizations in the developed countries pays for less than 5% of the total health care costs in the developing world. The estimates do not specify exactly what they include as health aid, but they probably omit the value of food relief and other health-related disaster relief, as well as money spent on water supply and sanitation projects, although these activities

Q. 4. Write short notes on
Q. a) Quality Council of India
Answer: Quality Council of India is the national level body responsible for formulating the strategy, general policy, constitution and monitoring of various components of QCI including the accreditation boards to ensure an effective accreditation system, monitoring the progress of activities & appeal mechanisms set by the respective boards.  Quality Council of India, (QCI), registered as autonomous society was formed by a joint initiative of Government of India and the Indian Industry represented by the three prime industry associations,

Answer: The Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy, abbreviated as AYUSH, is a governmental body in India purposed with developing education and research in ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine), yoga, naturopathy, unani, siddha, and homoeopathy, and other alternative medicine systems. Created in March 1995 as the Department of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy (ISM&H), AYUSH

Q. 5 A) Multiple Choice Questions
Q. i) The current Infant mortality rate (IMR) of India is around
a) 42
b) 60
c) 100
d) 22

Q. ii) Under the Central Government Health Scheme (CGHS) the servicesinclude
a) Outpatient care
b) Laboratory and x-ray investigations
c) Hospitalization
d) All the above

Q. iii) The Primary Health Centre is directly under the charge of:
a) Medical officer
b) Medical Superintendent
c) Health Assistant (Male)
d) Auxillary Nurse Midwife ( ANM)


Q. iv) Under the RCH programme, the child survival interventions are
a) Immunization
b) Vitamin A supplementation
c) Oral rehydration therapy
d) All the above

Q. v) The following vaccines are included in UIP schedule except
a) BCG
b) MMR
c) DPT
d) OPV

Q. vi) In the NHP-2002, it is envisaged to eradicate the following diseases
a) Polio and Yaws
b) Filariasis& Kala Azar
c) Leprosy & TB
d) None of the above

Q. vii) The following are the components of National Blindness ControlProgramme
a) Vitamin-A prophylaxis
b) Cataract Surgeries
c) Health manpower training
d) All the above.

Q. viii) The prevalence of blindness in India is
a) 0.5 %
b) 0.7 %
c) 1.5%
d) 2.5%

Q. ix) The activities under NLEP are
a) MDT
b) Detection of cases
c) Rehabilitation
d) All the above.

Q. x) Accredited Social Health Activist will be chosen by and accountable tothe
a) Medical Officer (MO)
b) Government of India (GOI)
c) Gram Panchayat
d) ZillaParishad
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